Computer hardware is practically useless without software. Software is the program that is required to fulfill the processing, input, output, storage, and control of the actions of data systems.

We are all using software on our computers, or mobile devices in the form of applications, and information services; many of which we install, or connect over the internet. 

Even if we decide to switch off the computers, phones, or refuse to touch keypads all day, we will still use various forms of software when watching our favorite TV programs, listening to the chimes from our video doorbells, or by adjusting our residence’s HVAC system controls.

Computer software is generally categorized into two: 

  1. System Software: These are the kind of programs that manage the resources of a computer system, and streamline applications programming. This software includes operating system (OS), networking software, software utilities, translators, and database management systems.
  2. An Application Software: These are programs that direct the performance of an application of a computer to meet the information processing desires of end-users. 

They include off-the-shelf software like spreadsheet packages, as well as external, or internally developed software, which is manufactured to meet the special needs of an institution.

What to Know About Operating Systems (OS)

The operating system (OS) is the most important system software package for any computer. Every computer system operates under the control of an OS. Operating systems for computers that are shared by a number of users are relatively more complex than OS for personal computers.

What The Operating System Does

The OS is the software that controls all the resources of a computer system. For instance it:

  • Allots the required hardware to programs
  • Schedules procedures for undertaking on the processor (CPU)
  • Allocates the required memory for every program
  • Allots the mandatory input, and output devices
  • Manages the information, and program files conserved at secondary storage
  • Retains file directories, and provides access to the information in the files

How  Multi-Programming Works

This is the capacity of a computer to enforce various programs together on the same processor by maintaining one of the programs using the CPU while others are operating input or output.

Multiprogramming employs the active fractions of the programs competing for the CPU to be available in main memory.

Modes of Computer System Operation

OS enables the system they manage to operate in several modes. These include time-sharing, real-time, and batch processing.

  • Time-sharing. Time-sharing systems provide interactive processing by allotting a short-time piece for the use of the server to every user in turn.
  • Real-time processing. Real-time programs guarantee a response within specified time restrictions, often implied as, “deadlines.”
  • Batch processing. This is the processing of programs, or transactions in batches, or packages, without a user’s interchange.

The Future of Lighting Controls

A couple of years back, the idea of lights that automatically turn on when you enter a room appeared like a science tale. 

Today, the installation of occupancy sensors for lighting controls is common, and with the advancement of newer, cheap computer techs, the once-fanciful idea of an interoperable facility (capable of conveying data like security, lighting, and temperature among building systems) has become practical, and affordable.

A building automation system (BAS) offers benefits like extensibility and interoperability over the most complicated lighting control network. For instance, an occupancy sensor connected to a building automation system can: 

  • Control lights 
  • Control temperature, and airflow 
  • Alert security personnel of intruders 
  • Help recovery crews to find occupants in an emergency situation, and 
  • Determine the floors where empty elevators can wait to pick up passengers. 

The building automation system (BAS) can traverse several buildings, regardless of distance so that a college campus or even all the worldwide establishments of a global corporation can be regulated from a single workstation.

The technology behind BAS possibility is DDC (direct digital control), the use of special control sensors, modules, and actuators that communicate over a high-speed system. 

Direct digital control elements are available for virtually every type of mechanical, or electrical system. DDC indications can be relaid via radio signals or even the internet.

Interoperability — Talking the Talk

One of the biggest concerns when installing a BAS is the availability of synonymous products for controlling different types of devices used in a building. 

Unfortunately, the narrative of DDC has been one of many competing standards, which are not certainly compatible with each other.

The communication procedures and networking media determine the compatibility of direct digital control elements. The communication procedure is the networking language, whereby the DDC elements are speaking to each other. 

Moreover, although some BAS use Token Ring or Ethernet communication procedures, these codes were constructed for data networks, and aren’t optimized for control networks. This happens either because they don’t work well with consistently hard traffic, or they become too slow when big numbers of projections are needed.